Zika virus 2016 to date: benign bacteria Zika block spread of mosquitoes, new model developed to study the role of sex in the transmission Zika ; Home “ General Health ”
Zika virus 2016 update : benign bacteria was found to completely block Zika and Chikungunya transmission in mosquitoes and scientists developed a new model to examine the role of sex in the transmission Zika.
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that the benign bacteria known as pipientis Wolbachia can be used to block transmission of the virus in Aedes aegypti
TODATE, 39 countries and territories of the Americas have been affected by the epidemic Zika. It is estimated that four million people will be infected by the end of the year. So far, Zika virus has been linked to birth defects of the brain and. Currently there is no vaccine or cure for the Zika virus, so that prevention is the only way to protect themselves from infection.
Researchers have already begun releasing mosquitoes with Wolbachia in countries like Colombia, Brazil, Australia, Vietnam and Indonesia as a means of controlling dengue virus.
Researcher Professor Scott O’Neil said: “In two of our initial study sites in Australia, approximately 90 percent of mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia remain after the initial release more than six years ago.”
Wolbachia can be found in 60 percent of insects, and although not common in Aedes aegypti, the researchers found that the bacteria can enter the mosquitoes in the laboratory and therefore helps prevent transmission of dengue virus.
For the study, mice researchers infected Zika virus, which was originally isolated from a human patient, and mosquitoes feeding mice either two or three days after being left were infected . Mosquitoes were harboring either a strain of Wolbachia known as Mel or w-Wolbachia were free.
Another group of mosquitoes were allowed to feed on the blood of sheep with high concentrations of Zika virus.
four, seven, 10, and 17 days after fed mosquitoes infected with blood Zika, researchers conducted their tests infection, assess whether the virus has spread. Scientific Mateo Aliota he explained. “The first site of replication for arbovirus is the mosquito midgut time, leave the midgut and flushed blood to secondary tissues and finally to the salivary glands, where it replicates and finally more spitting “.
The researchers found that mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia were less likely to become infected with Zika virus, and infected were unable to transmit the virus.
“A surprisingly low percentage of mosquitoes actually are capable of transmitting the virus, but considering the size of the outbreak, and we believe that mosquitoes are the driver of the outbreak, the results were unexpected. Just it goes to show how much we have yet to understand about the basic biology of this virus “-. Aliota added
Other studies have shown that Wolbachia can stop transmission of the virus of yellow fever and Aedes aegypti Colombian prevent transmitting the virus Chikungunya.
As Zika continues to spread, posing an imminent threat to reach the US, initiatives like this are important because they mean progress in efforts to stop transmission of the virus.
Zika virus and sex
Researchers at the University of Miami have developed a mathematical model in an attempt to answer the question of whether the Zika virus it can be transmitted through sexual intercourse.
The aim of the mathematical model is to outline possible avenues of viruses and to help determine which of these transmission routes, either transmitted by mosquitoes or sexual transmission is more important in the investigation of the spread and control virus.
The researchers combined two transmission modes in a set of equations and then calibrate their model Zika epidemic rates in Brazil, Colombia and El Salvador. The researchers used such factors as the frequency of bites and mortality of Aedes aegypti and protection during a sexual encounter. The end result was what is called a “basic reproductive number” which is the number of infections resulting from an initial infection in a population.
The researchers found that the average number of new infections can be traced back to a single case Zika, which leaves two, and sexual transmission accounts for only three percent of cases.
“Our analyzes indicate that the basic reproduction number of Zika is more sensitive to the bite rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes, while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak, “explained lead researcher Ruan Shigui.
“was I could conceivably have someone who was infected, and not even necessarily know they were infected, bringing the disease for a while, have some sexual encounter, and infect someone else. I do not think it has been documented . But possibly, theoretically, that could be a source of an outbreak that seems to come from nowhere. So for this particular disease, due to the complexity of transmission routes and the fact that some people may remain at the stage of infection for a long time, is more complicated than the average of the disease, “concluded Chris Cosner, professor of mathematics at the University of Miami.
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